In an unmanaged tangle of weeds, a year-old pine tree just isn’t the big guy out there. And all those weeds can add years to the time it takes a pine to become the towering tree people want.So within the first year after planting, foresters recommend spraying a herbicide to knock back the weeds and give the pines the chance to rise above the crowd.Herbicides have long been used to control hardwoods in pine forests, said David Dickens. And for a number of years now, an early, once-over spray to control smaller weeds has become a standard management practice.Worth the Extra Cost”It’s particularly useful here in the South,” Dickens said, “where we get such lush vegetative growth. We’ve found it can enhance growth enough to warrant the additional expense.”Does the added use of herbicide pose an added threat to people and wildlife?Not really, Dickens said.”In general, the herbicides we use now are very safe, to the environment and to ourselves, if we take care when we handle and use them,” he said. “And we use them only once or twice in the life of the forest, which may be 20-30 years or more.”Use Herbicide EarlyForesters often recommend using a herbicide to control herbaceous weeds either in preparing the planting site or within the first year after planting.Then within three to five years, they may recommend another application to control the hardwoods that compete, as the weeds did earlier, for the moisture and nutrients in the soil.Later on, as the trees get tall enough, foresters use fire to control the competing vegetation. Each practice is geared to giving the pines an edge over the other plants.Herbicides are simply a management tool in forestry, Dickens said. And how much management a forest needs depends on what the landowner wants to do with his land.Management Extremes”At one extreme is a highly managed forest with heavy applications of fertilizer, pesticides and herbicides so there’s nothing out there growing but pine trees,” he said.”We do that on some research plots, but it’s often not economical in general use,” he said. “At the other extreme is an unmanaged, green jungle. What you generally want is somewhere in-between those extremes.”Giving pines an edge but allowing some hardwoods and other plants in a forest is not only cost-effective, Dickens said, but can also open the forest to more wildlife species and other benefits.Managing toward either extreme would narrow the range of wildlife that would find the forest attractive. “If you manage the forest just for one wildlife species such as the spotted owl or red cockaded woodpecker,” Dickens said, “you manage to hurt other species.”
NewsHub 9 November 2017Family First Comment: No surprises. It’s called dope for a reason.“Chronic marijuana use in adolescence was negatively associated with achieving important developmental milestones in young adulthood.”Teenage boys who smoke a lot of weed might have trouble finding a wife, new research has found.Researchers in the US tracking more than 1000 young adults over two decades found men who habitually used alcohol or marijuana in their teens were less likely to get married.They were also less likely to go to university or have a full-time job, says study author Elizabeth Harari of the University of Connecticut.“Chronic marijuana use in adolescence was negatively associated with achieving important developmental milestones in young adulthood.”Marijuana and alcohol use by young women on the other hand had no effect on their marriage or employment status, but did make them less likely to go to college or earn high wages.“Awareness of marijuana’s potentially deleterious effects will be important,” says Dr Harari, with a growing trend towards decriminalisation and legalisation across the US and the world.READ MORE: http://www.newshub.co.nz/home/health/2017/11/marijuana-blunts-boys-marriage-prospects-study.html
While the Republic of Ireland international midfielder’s actions perhaps warded off an even more explosive melee, Pardew admitted he had crossed a line. He said: “He was right on top of me and I wanted to just ease him away from me but obviously I put my head in a forward motion. I want to apologise to him, everyone at Hull and obviously my own fans as well. “I don’t think it was a headbutt. It wasn’t a motion that was quick. “Sometimes when you’re on the sideline like that you can get involved in a moment like that. It was an incident that just flared up all around me. I just wanted to get him away, but with the forward motion…you can’t do that. “Of course, I’m not stupid enough to accept there’s going to be no punishment. I’ll have to accept whatever comes my way. “I believe my behaviour over the years has not resulted in too many fines and sitting in the stands, but this one probably will.” The incident took the gloss off a superb display by the Magpies, who had been goal-shy in recent weeks but exploded into life on Saturday thanks to a Moussa Sissoko brace and one each for Loic Remy and Vurnon Anita. Pardew’s antics will generate yet more negative headlines for a club never far from controversy for one reason or another, and the manager admits Saturday’s episode may well be a personal watershed. “Definitely from now on I’m going to sit down and stay out of the way. I’ll have to sit in the dugout – hopefully I’ll be in the dugout, we’ll have to wait and see,” he added, alluding to the likelihood of an FA ban. “I want to win games. Perhaps I get too involved in it by standing so close to the action. The thing today has told me to go and sit down, watch the game and keep out of the way. “Sir Alex Ferguson once said to me, ‘go and sit down’. I think he was probably right.” Hull boss Bruce felt Pardew would have instantly regretted his rash reaction. “He’s apologised to us as a club and as far as I’m concerned the matter’s over,” said Bruce, whose charges pulled back to 2-1 early in the second half through a Curtis Davies header but failed to kick on from there. “I’ve never seen or witnessed anything like that. There’s no question that Alan’s led with his head and he’s obviously lost it. I’m sure Alan will regret it and he’ll look at himself later on and think ‘what the hell have I done?’ “I don’t think I’ve ever seen a manager do anything like that. We’re all in a state of shock. It’s for Alan to live with and deal with the consequences. “I’m sure he’ll regret his actions for a long time. I would imagine Alan would be in serious trouble, serious trouble.” Bruce was at least able to joke that Pardew was fortunate Meyler did not respond in kind. “He’s lucky that he didn’t get one back! Then he would have been in serious trouble,” he said. “A 25-year-old against a 50-year-old is a mismatch, isn’t it?” Pardew’s actions were also savaged by pundits. Match of the Day’s Alan Hansen said: “There’s outrage and understandably so. It’s terribly sad to see these pictures, sad for Pardew, sad for Newcastle and sad for the game. “Meyler doesn’t do a lot to provoke him and yet he still lost it totally. The pictures are very, very bad.” BBC Radio 5 Live pundit Robbie Savage questioned whether the Newcastle manager’s position had become untenable as a result of the incident. He said: “I think it’s a shocking act. A ridiculous, scandalous act from a manager who’s got previous. Has his position become untenable? “It’s violent conduct, a three-game ban for a player. Because it’s a manager I feel it’s worse. He’s been sent to the stands. “I would give him a complete ban from now until the end of the season…home and away games. “But given Newcastle’s current position (safe from the threat of relegation), is that any punishment?” Former England international and Match of the Day presenter Gary Lineker took to social media to say: “Inexcusable from a manager.” Another pundit, Richard Keys, added on Twitter: “Sir Bobby Robson will be spinning in his grave.” Former Tottenham and Liverpool midfielder Jamie Redknapp said Pardew’s conduct was “unacceptable”. Now a pundit on Sky Sports, the 40-year-old said: “It’s absolutely unacceptable. You don’t go to headbutt someone – that’s not right. “You have to set standards as a manager, you’re a representative of your club. It’s extremely wrong.” In a statement released late on Saturday night, Newcastle said: “Newcastle United are disappointed with the actions of its manager Alan Pardew this afternoon. His behaviour was unacceptable and is not the behaviour we expect from the manager of Newcastle United. “It is most disappointing that this incident has taken the focus away from what was a fantastic performance by the team and an excellent result away from home which leaves the club in eighth place in the Barclays Premier League. “Sadly, the headlines tomorrow will not be focused on the result or the efforts of the players, but instead on the actions of our manager. “Alan unreservedly apologised immediately following the game to the player, to Hull City Football cub and its fans, and to the fans of Newcastle United. “We have held discussions this evening with Alan who has offered his sincere apologies to the club and it is clear he deeply regrets his actions. Alan has accepted a formal warning from the club in relation to his behaviour today and also a club fine of £100,000. “The club is now drawing a line under this matter and will be making no further comment.” Pardew was sent to the stands and Meyler shown a yellow card following their clash which occurred with Newcastle 3-1 up, referee Kevin Friend adjudging the Magpies boss to be the main aggressor in an ugly tussle sparked when Meyler barged into the 52-year-old while attempting to retrieve the ball. Pardew, no stranger to touchline altercations in the last year with his confrontation with Manchester City boss Manuel Pellegrini the highest profile, appeared to move his head towards the former Sunderland midfielder, who was later commended by Hull boss Steve Bruce for not making more of the contact. The incident, which came in the 72nd minute as Meyler sought to retrieve the ball from behind Pardew at a throw-in in front of the dugouts, cast a shadow over a match the Magpies went on to win 4-1. Football Association chairman Greg Dyke has confirmed the organisation will investigate the incident, while Pardew himself conceded he would be “stupid” not to expect the FA to come down hard on him in the coming days. Newcastle have hit manager Alan Pardew with a formal warning and a £100,000 fine after he appeared to headbutt Hull midfielder David Meyler in Saturday’s Barclays Premier League match at the KC Stadium. Press Association
Ghana and Nigeria have seven African titles between them, with the Super Eagles and the Black Stars featuring in the last two FIFA World Cup finals in South Africa (2010) and Brazil (2014).All the teams in Group A will play in Takoradi, the twin city of Sekondi that also hosted matches during the 2008 Africa Cup of Nations.Other teams in Group A are The Gambia, Sierra Leone, Mauritania and Guinea Bissau.The Super Eagles are drawn to play Sierra Leone.Group B will compete in Cape Coast. 2015 African champions Cote dâ€™Ivoire headline the pool that also has Senegal, Burkina Faso and Benin Republic, with Liberia, Niger Republic, Togo and Cape Verde also involved.NFFâ€™s Director of Competitions, Ayobola Oyeyode, represented Nigeria at the Draw Ceremony.THE DRAWGROUP AGhana Vs The GambiaNigeria Vs S’ LeoneMali Vs MauritaniaGuinea Vs G’ BissauGROUP BSenegal Vs LiberiaB’ Faso Vs Niger RepCote dâ€™Ivoire Vs TogoBenin Vs Cape VerdeShare this:FacebookRedditTwitterPrintPinterestEmailWhatsAppSkypeLinkedInTumblrPocketTelegram Nigeriaâ€™s Super Eagles have been drawn in Group A alongside host nation Ghana in the WAFU Nations Cup.Other countries in the group include Mali and Guinea in this unique format that will see teams play single games before proceeding to the quarter finals.