Improved sampling technologies, international observing networks, and data synthesis efforts are providing an unprecedented view of the global patterns and decadal variability of surface-ocean partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO(2)) and air-sea CO2 flux. A new observational synthesis for surface-ocean pCO(2) leads to a global ocean net CO2 sink of -1.8 Pg C yr(-1) (+/-0.7); continental margins and estuaries together act as a small net source (similar to 0.15 Pg C yr(-1)). New results on decadal trends indicate recent decreases in efficiency of the ocean to absorb CO2 in the Southern Ocean, North Atlantic, and Equatorial Pacific. Although we do not yet have an estimate of the trend in the global oceanic sink Of CO2, the existing observations may help explain temporal variations in the fraction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions that remain in the atmosphere (airborne fraction). Major vulnerabilities in the future behavior of the ocean-carbon-climate system include the effects of ocean warming, enhanced vertical stratification, strengthening and poleward contraction of westerly winds in the Southern Ocean, and shifts in the biological pump and ecosystem functioning. To address issues of both ocean-carbon variability and vulnerability, a sustained surface-ocean-carbon-observing system needs to be established with improved global spatial coverage and internationally coordinated data synthesis activities. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Metro Sport ReporterSunday 24 Feb 2019 2:14 pmShare this article via facebookShare this article via twitterShare this article via messengerShare this with Share this article via emailShare this article via flipboardCopy link Advertisement Why Unai Emery has benched Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang for Arsenal vs Southampton Comment Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang was named as a substitute against Southampton (Getty Images)Unai Emery has opted to bench Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang for Arsenal’s clash with Southampton because he wants ‘fresh players’.The 29-year-old is Arsenal’s top scorer this season with 18 goals, with Alexandre Lacazette just behind with 12 goals.Lacazette was suspended for Arsenal’s clash with BATE Borisov in the Europa League on Thursday evening, which meant Aubameyang played a full game at the Emirates Stadium.And so Emery has decided to rest Aubameyang for Sunday’s clash against Southampton and start Lacazette in attack as the Gunners continue their push for a top-four finish in the Premier League. Aubameyang is Arsenal’s top scorer this season with 18 goals (AMA/Getty Images)More: FootballRio Ferdinand urges Ole Gunnar Solskjaer to drop Manchester United starChelsea defender Fikayo Tomori reveals why he made U-turn over transfer deadline day moveMikel Arteta rates Thomas Partey’s chances of making his Arsenal debut vs Man City‘We needed fresh players with energy today and quality,’ Emery told Sky Sports.AdvertisementAdvertisement‘They are a very physical team, organised and are going to work hard against us. We need to start with a team which is fresh and has energy.‘We want to continue being consistent, and with a big intensity and aggressiveness like Thursday.’More: Arsenal FCArsenal flop Denis Suarez delivers verdict on Thomas Partey and Lucas Torreira movesThomas Partey debut? Ian Wright picks his Arsenal starting XI vs Manchester CityArsene Wenger explains why Mikel Arteta is ‘lucky’ to be managing Arsenal Advertisement