The Melancholy Mommy: A Look at Postpartum Depression

first_imgBy Bari Sobelson, MS, LMFTFlickr [3MJP_3 by Matt Johnson, May 14, 2011, CC BY-ND 2.0] retrieved on February 18, 2016She is sitting on the couch with her 1- month- old baby in her arms. The baby is crying and she is alone. She’s tried everything to soothe him- rocking, bouncing, feeding, singing, pacifiers, blankets, and swaddles. He’s still crying. She hasn’t eaten or taken a shower since yesterday and it seems like she may not accomplish either one of those things today. Just a couple of weeks ago, people were in and out of her house with hugs, words of wisdom, food, and arms to hold her baby. Her husband was home for two more weeks until his next deployment, which she hopes will be his last. But now, the excitement has worn off and reality is setting in. Her husband is in another country protecting ours. In just two weeks, she has to get back to her full time job that pays her. It hits her that she will have to learn how to balance the mothering thing and the real job thing. How in the world will she be able to do that when she can barely even get a shower and a meal? All of a sudden, she finds herself in a place she never expected to be. She starts to wonder what is wrong with her; why she feels like she can’t get it together and why motherhood doesn’t look or feel like she thought it would. Last week, she finally gave up on breastfeeding after trying every single thing she could think of to make it work. But, her breasts still hurt and her conscience is beating her up, telling her that she could and should have tried harder. She’s remembering all of the articles in her OBGYN’s office and on the internet about the benefits of breastfeeding the baby. And, she’s thinking of that friend of hers who has a 2- month old that is solely breastfed and thriving. Her body doesn’t look or feel like her own and she wonders if it ever will again. She wants her baby to just stop crying long enough to allow her to use the bathroom. And now she is crying. And she feels like a terrible mother. Helpless. Alone. Afraid. Angry. Guilty. Inadequate. She starts to have thoughts she never imagined she would have and they scare her. She remembers an article she read in her doctor’s office about postpartum depression and realizes that this may be more than just those baby blues her mother referred to a couple of weeks ago. She picks up the phone and calls someone for help.  According to the CDC, 11 to 20 percent of women who give birth each year have postpartum depression symptoms. Fortunately, the woman in the depiction above recognized her symptoms and was able to call for help. But what do we, as mental health professionals, need to do to help every woman be able to identify her symptoms and get help? Here are some potential barriers we need to recognize when thinking about our efforts to help women with PPD:Shame and Embarrassment: Mom may not feel comfortable sharing her thoughts and feelings because she doesn’t want people to judge her. She is afraid that people will think she is a terrible person for not thinking that motherhood is the most wonderful thing that has ever happened to her. When she hears the word depression, she associates it with being “crazy.”What Society Says: Moms are supposed to be totally and completely in love with their new addition, right? She is loving life and rocking at being a mommy! Or at least that’s what the status updates on her friends’ Facebook pages tell her…I Can Handle This On My Own: Mom may think to herself, “I just gave birth to an 8 pound baby completely naturally! I can definitely handle this one my own”.Foggy Lenses: Mom may be struggling so much that she doesn’t even have any idea that there is a name for what she is feeling and that there is help for her.Unknown Resources: Many moms may not have any idea where to go for help. A military mother, for instance, may have just moved to a new location and has not yet established any local friendships or identified any local resources. So, what’s the solution to these barriers? Here are some possibilities:Shame and Embarrassment: We should be equipping soon-to-be mothers with the knowledge of PPD so that 1) they can recognize the signs and symptoms 2) they can be prepared for the possibilities 3) it is normalized for them so that there is no stigma attached to it.What Society Says: We need to be putting information out there where everyone can access it- social media is a great avenue- we should be showing the good, the bad, and the ugly too!I Can Handle This On My Own: By sharing information on the facts of PPD, we can convey to mothers that they may need a little bit of extra help from professionals and that there is absolutely nothing wrong with that.Foggy Lenses: We need to arm women with community support- family, spouses, friends, doctors, etc. – so that they know what to look for in a new mother who is struggling with PPD.Unknown Resources: Having resources available in our practices and sharing those resources through social media and community avenues is key! With our help, mothers like the one depicted above will know to recognize when there is a problem and know precisely where to go when they need help. Unfortunately, not all new mothers have the knowledge base of PPD to reach out for help like the one in the scenario. We need to take action and think about ways to inform soon-to-be mothers or new mothers and their family and friends so that they are prepared. Wouldn’t it be amazing if OBGYNs were talking candidly with their patients about the possibility of PPD during pregnancy? Or, if they were conducting surveys at the 6-week postpartum check-up. As mental health professionals, it would behoove us to start talking with these physicians about the statistics and realities of PPD so that we can all work together as a team to help these mothers. This post was written by Bari Sobelson, MS, LMFT, the social media and webinar coordination specialist for the MFLN Family Development Team. The Family Development team aims to support the development of professionals working with military families.  Find out more about the Military Families Learning Network Family Development concentration on our website, Facebook, and Twitter.last_img read more

What Are Your Spending Triggers?

first_imgBy Carol ChurchThis post is part of an ongoing series to support our annual upcoming three-day learning event. The Personal Finance Virtual Learning Event will be held June 5-7 and this year will focus on the soft skills financial professionals need to effectively meet the needs of their clients and students. Learn more and register for sessions here.If you’re like most of us, you’ve probably heard people joke about “retail therapy”—that is, using shopping as a way to cope with sad or negative feelings. You may have even engaged in it yourself. Of course, if we find shopping to be a fun diversion, it may sometimes be a harmless way to enjoy ourselves on a day when we need a bit of cheering up.But there are some less comfortable truths behind the phrase. For some people, emotionally difficult times, like grief, depression, a break-up, or stress at home or work, are what is known as “spending triggers.” And at times, these triggers can cause us to spend far too much, when there are healthier ways to handle stress and sadness.Of course, stress isn’t the only spending trigger out there (though it is a common one!) A spending trigger is really just a factor, feeling, or event that causes us to spend money….often on things we can’t really afford or may not really need. At some times, we may be very aware that we are being “triggered.” At others, the process may happen at a subconscious level.In order to rein in unwanted spending, it’s important to learn about common spending triggers and to think about what our own might be. That way, we may be able to recognize these behaviors and prevent them. Read on to find out more.Common Spending TriggersFollowing are some common emotions, situations, and experiences that may tend to trigger unwanted, excessive, and/or unnecessary spending.Stress and unhappinessThis is well known as one of the most common spending triggers. For many of us, spending can give a quick high that distracts from or seems to alleviate feelings of stress, frustration, and aggravation.Holidays and special eventsThe emotional pressure of special events like Christmas, birthdays, and weddings commonly causes people to spend more than they want or intend to.Promotions, raises, windfalls, and changes in statusIt’s obviously tempting to celebrate a graduation, promotion, or pay increase with a purchase or two. Over time, though, these changes may tend to lead to what experts call “lifestyle creep”—adjusting the way we live and what we buy to “match” a higher income. When we do this, our savings may not increase. We may even end up worse off than we were before.Feeling weak or disempoweredSpending money makes people feel strong and powerful, so if your work or home life is making you feel just the opposite, your subconscious may urge you to go out and make a purchase, perhaps especially a high-status luxury one.Being reminded of past deprivationFor those who grew up in need, or who felt ashamed of their family’s economic status, thinking about or being reminded of those feelings can trigger an urge to spend. We may want to prove that we are past that and that we have “made it” by visually signaling our achievements to ourselves and others. Purchases may also make us feel secure.Desire to please or impressWe may buy gifts for children, spouses, family members or partners in an effort to make them happy or impress them, especially when feeling vulnerable in the relationship.Social pressureIf our social circles are big on luxury items, brand names, going out, expensive trips, and so on, it may be difficult not to resist the desire to fit in and participate by spending money.Sales, deals, excitement around buying eventsMany of us are very susceptible to the excitement and time pressure of events like Black Friday, Cyber Monday, major “sales” and so on. We may purchase items we don’t need due to the feeling that we can’t pass up a “great deal.” Retailers know this very well and create false discounts so we can experience the thrill of “saving.”BoredomDon’t underestimate the danger of boredom—for some, being left alone with nothing to do in an interesting shopping area, or even just with an open computer browser, can result in unintentional purchases made out of boredom.Happiness/celebration/feeling goodJust as sadness can trigger spending, so can happiness or excitement. Some people tend to spend money whenever they’re in a good mood, have had a good day, and so on. The concept of “being worth it” or “deserving it” may come in here.LonelinessResearch shows that material purchases may seem to decrease feelings of loneliness, creating a dangerous feedback loop.Having cash on handThe simple fact of having cash in one’s wallet can incline some people to spend when they otherwise might have refrained.Defeating Spending TriggersSo, you’ve identified or at least thought about your spending triggers, and want to know how to stop yourself in the act. Simple awareness may be a big part of the solution, but there are some other steps you can take.Automate your savingsThis is especially important after a raise. Increase the amount of money going to savings so that you don’t automatically raise your standard of living and spend up all the extra money you are now earning, just because it’s there.Make it harder to spend the moneyIf you have cash on hand, do you “blow it”? Then don’t visit the ATM before hitting the mall, or take out a nominal $20. On the other hand, if you tend to overwork your credit cards, leave them at home or bring the one with the lowest limit. The old trick of freezing your credit card in ice (so you have to wait till it melts to buy) still works, too.Delay purchasesSee something you feel you can’t live without? Put it on layaway, leave it in your online cart, or just write down the info and leave it on the shelf for a week or a month. Then see if the urge still remains.Find other ways to cope with stressIf stress or other negative feelings are what push you to spend, make a plan for other ways to handle these emotions. Exercise, spend time with friends, enjoy hobbies, or find other enjoyable activities that can take the place of spending money.Set savings goalsIt may be easier to rein in spending when you set savings goals, including for worthwhile but smaller spending goals like a new sofa or a vacation. Money that otherwise would have trickled away on small purchases can be put to a higher use.Ask for helpIf you’re not happy with your spending habits, let those around you know. Friends who ask you out for dinner may be just as happy to get coffee, go for a walk, or do something less costly. Family members will understand if you let them know that holidays can’t be extravagant (they may welcome the excuse to ramp things down, too).If the situation is more serious and you feel you can’t control the problem, seek counseling.  Spending triggers don’t have to exert control over your life. References:Curtis, J. (n.d.) 7 Psychological Triggers That Cause Spending – How to Deal With Them.Foreman, G. (2013). Know the 8 emotional spending triggers.Greenwood, H. (n.d.) My Money: Lesson 2, Spending Leaks.Huddleston, C. (2016). 9 Spending Triggers That Can Leave You Poor.McGrath, M. (2016). Anger, Hunger, The Thrill Of The Hunt: What’s Your Spending Trigger?last_img read more

Understanding Resilience as a Dynamic Process

first_imgWhat comes to mind when you think about resilience? Is it the person who successfully dealt with a serious illness? The individual who was able to overcome extreme disadvantages and ultimately thrive? Or someone who has dealt with great tragedy in their lives, but just keeps on going? While these images of people who did well despite the challenges they faced can be inspiring, they can also lead us to think of resilience as only an individual trait. Purple wildflowers grow from a crack in a rock formation overlooking Lake Superior. Photo by Bob Bertsch. Licensed under CC-BY 4.0. Return to article. Long Description“Superior Resilience” by Bob Bertsch. Licensed under CC-BY 4.0.Early research labeled these people “invulnerable” (Anthony, 1974), implying their ability to overcome challenges was intrinsic, and they would be able to overcome multiple challenges through their individual traits. However, subsequent research has also shown that the challenges we face and the strengths we use to overcome them emerge as our circumstances change (Masten & Garmezy, 1985), so our ability to deal with adversity is contextual.The definition of the term “resilience” has evolved to capture this contextual nature. Many recent definitions of resilience draw on Luthar, Cicchetti, and Becker’s (2000) view of resilience as the “dynamic process encompassing positive adaptation within the context of significant adversity.” Froma Walsh (2016) writes that human resilience involves the “interplay of multilevel systemic processes,” including the relationships formed in our immediate and extended families. Michael Ungar (2011) suggests our circumstances are critical, writing, “resilience is less an individual trait and more a quality of the child’s social and physical ecology.” Although they may emphasize different factors, most researchers agree that resilience is dynamic. As Ann Masten (2015) puts it, “Resilience will be dynamic because human individuals and their contexts are always changing.”A dynamic view of resilience is important because it creates possibilities. If resilience is a fixed, individual trait, what does that mean for people who lack that trait? What does it mean for people dedicated to helping others overcome the challenges they face? Seeing resilience as dynamic and emergent opens up the possibility that it can be fostered and developed. Recognizing that multiple systems (e.g. families, schools, communities, etc.) interact to influence resilience means there can be many, diverse approaches to developing resilience. Accepting that there are factors beyond individual characteristics that can enhance or detract from resilience allows us to see people who have faced adversity, including ourselves, as more than just successes or failures.Join us to explore resilience from multiple perspectives in a three-part webinar series in August 2019. On August 20 Dr. Ann Masten will be speaking about “Nurturing Individual Resilience from a Multisystem Developmental Perspective”. Dr. Froma Walsh will speak on “Nurturing Family Resilience Through a Strengths-Based Framework” on August 22. Dr. Michael Ungar will facilitate a discussion around “Nurturing Resilience Through a Strong Community” on August 27. Learn more about the webinar series and RSVP @ https://militaryfamilieslearningnetwork.org/resilienceseries/ReferencesAnthony, E.J. (1974). Introduction: The syndrome of the psychologically vulnerable child. In E.J. Anthony & C. Koupernik (Eds.), The child in his family: Children at Psychiatric Risk (Vol. 3, pp. 3-10). New York, NY: Wiley.Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience.: Past, present and future research. In B.M. Lester, A.S. Masten & B.McEwen (Eds.), Resilience in children (pp. 105-115). Boston, MA: Blackwell. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1885202/Masten, A.S. (2015). Pathways to Integrated Resilience Science, Psychological Inquiry, 26:2, 187-196, https://doi.org/10.1080/1047840X.2015.1012041Ungar, M. (2011). The Social Ecology of Resilience: Addressing Contextual and Cultural Ambiguity of a Nascent Construct. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 81(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.2010.01067.x Walsh, F. (2016). Applying a Family Resilience Framework in Training, Practice, and Research: Mastering the Art of the Possible. Family Process, 55(4), 616–632. https://doi.org/10.1111/famp.12260last_img read more

Unique Typography in After Effects with Type-O-Matic

first_imgMaking typography videos in After Effects is easier than ever with the FREE Type-O-Matic tool from motion design firm Hamo Studio.We love quality typography.  Just check out past posts, including this roundup of impressive typography videos and a tutorial on creating kinetic type in After Effects.  Typography videos can be crazy-effective at delivering your message, but they can also be really time intensive – keyframing, keyframing, keyframing.This new Type-O-Matic tool from Barcelona’s Hamo Studios (free!) attempts to speed up the process of creating creating quality typography videos in After Effects.  Type-O-Matic is actually an AE project that’s already setup for animating text.A controller lets you modify the opacity, position, rotation and scale of your text.  Additional tools create text masks and unfold (giving the appearance that the text is actually ‘unfolding’).  Whether you’re a video editor or motion designer, Type-O-Matic is a quick way to make your typography more dynamic and engaging.Head over to Hamo Studio to download the FREE Type-O-Matic typography tool.Have a look at this After Effects typography tool in action:Learn how to use the Type-O-Matic in your existing AE projects:last_img read more

5 of the Greatest Cinematographers for Creative Inspiration

first_imgFor aspiring cinematographers, there’s no better way to learn than by studying the work of others. These 5 critically acclaimed DPs will surely inspire you to improve your craft.Cinematography is like a language, and every DP has their own way of speaking. While there are some universal skills and techniques that are shared amongst cinematographers, all DPs are fundamentally different and have their own unique way of seeing the world.In my opinion, a truly great cinematographer is adaptable and can shoot any genre of film beautifully, but at the same time their work has a common thread that ties it all together. This is because they have developed their craft and their voice to a point that it is seen and felt in every frame that they touch.Image from ShutterstockBelow, I’ve listed 5 of the greatest cinematographers whose work you should be studying. I’d like to point out that this isn’t intended to be a top 5 list, but rather an eclectic selection of 5 DPs with very different styles. In fact, some of my favorite DPs are not listed here… So don’t be too upset if your cinematic inspiration didn’t make the cut.John TollImage from IMDbToll is best known for being one of the few cinematographers to win back-to-back Oscars. His legendary body of work includes critically acclaimed films like Legends of the Fall, Braveheart, Almost Famous, and Gone Baby Gone. Toll’s trademark is capturing very natural looking images, though extremely beautiful and almost ethereal in their nature.His seemingly toned down approach to cinema is seamless and images always give the feeling of natural light, even if it’s not the case. For those of you that like the natural light look, Toll can certainly be seen as an inspiration as he is a master of organic looking images, even when shooting with traditional film lighting setups.Emmanuel LubezkiImage from IMDbWith two Oscars and seven nominations under his belt, not to mention films such as Great Expectations, Children of Men , The Tree of Life, Gravity and Birdman – Emmanuel Lubezki’s talents are as varied as his work. One may say that he is indeed a storyteller himself, which could be one of the reasons he’s one of the most acclaimed working DPs today.His ability to capture expressive and emotionally driven images is second to none. Lubezki’s cinematic style over the course of his career has varied but the visuals he creates always share these common elements: they are bold, aesthetically stunning, and create emotionally charged experiences for anyone watching. It’s no wonder why he is one of the most sought after DPs in the industry today.Robert ElswitImage from IMDbRobert Elswit’s ability to elevate images through distinct use of color has earned him the Oscar and a solid body of classic films our generation will never forget. He is unequivocally one of the best cinematographers when it comes to his acute awareness of color and tone in film.You don’t have to look further than the underexposed and desaturated images found in The Town, which help to convey the raw world the characters live in to illustrate this point. Or the visually distinct color palettes found in films like Inherent Vice, Michael Clayton, or There Will Be Blood. Robert’s abilities as a DP are unique in that he is able to grade his images with obvious color looks, yet they never feel over stylized.Robert RichardsonImage from IMDbWith an outstanding body of work filled with classic after classic film, there is arguably no cinematographer more influential in American filmmaking than Robert Richardson. He’s received three Oscars and four nominations and is best known for his longstanding relationships with some of the best directors in cinema.With Oliver Stone, he accomplished Wall Street, Platoon, and Natural Born Killers. He worked alongside Martin Scorsese to bring us Casino, Shutter Island and The Aviator. He teamed up with Quentin Tarantino for the Kill Bill films, Inglourious Basterds and Django Unchained. There is a reason why some of the best directors choose to work with him time and time again… Richardson is a master in the use of photography to convey important information and a trailblazer in many ways when it comes to his style of shooting.Whether we’re talking about his ability to work with hard lighting, his brilliant camera movements, or his innate ability to shoot mind-blowing wide shots, it’s impossible to deny the range of talent Richardson has and the impact his work has had on the field.Roger DeakinsImage from IMDbThe power of Deakins’s work is undeniable, which of course is why he has been the gold standard to which so many other DPs are often compared to. His ability to convey the essence of a film’s story in a single shot is nothing short of remarkable, and the precision and impact of his style raises the bar for every other working cinematographer.Many films have great moments or arcs that call back the film’s main theme, but barely any of them are able to capture that same theme visually in the way that Deakins can. He leaves his mark on some of the best films our generation has seen, including: Fargo, The Shawshank Redemption, O Brother Where Art Thou, No Country For Old Men, and so many more. He has an astounding 11 Oscar nominations and will go down in history as one of the best cinematographers of all time.Looking for more inspiration to stoke your cinematography fires? Check out the following posts:Video Showcase! 12 Beautiful 2012 Cinematography ReelsSimple Framing Tips to Dramatically Improve Your CinematographyThree Cinematography MasterclassesIs your favorite cinematographer missing from this list? Who inspires YOU? Let’s talk about it in the comments below.last_img read more

DaVinci Resolve Tip: Emulating Photoshop’s Vibrance

first_imgPhotoshop can be a source of techniques and inspiration for color grading. Learn how to emulate the software’s vibrance effects in DaVinci Resolve!One Photoshop parameter that always seems to improve the image is the Vibrance slider inside the Camera Raw settings. Vibrance adds saturation to only the least saturated colors, leaving objects with already high saturation alone. While there’s no doubt that Photoshop’s algorithms are quite sophisticated, let’s try to emulate the action in DaVinci Resolve.The original image when it was imported into Photoshop using Camera Raw. For comparison, here’s Photoshop’s Saturation function set at 68. Most would agree it’s been pushed too far. Vibrance is a much more subtle effect that we’ll try to employ in Resolve.First, qualify a key just on saturation, leaving luminance and hue alone. Pull up the Saturation Low and turn on your Highlight so you can see what parts of the image you’re qualifying. Next, affect Saturation Low Soft to make sure the correction dissipates without any artifacts. Invert the key and slowly bring up the Saturation to see how the image is affected. You may need to change the point at which you’ve qualified the key to get the results you want.Here’s the qualifier, where only Saturation has been affected. When using this effect, the values you’ll want to separate will be on the low end of the saturation spectrum.The result of the key. Don’t forget to increase the Blur Radius.The qualification can now be inverted to process the more saturated parts of the image as well. This little trick is one way to achieve uniform saturation across the whole image.If you find this useful, save it as a preset in your Powergrade stills store for use in future sessions.Looking for a few more DaVinci Resolve tips? Well, here you go!DaVinci Resolve Workflow Roundtrip BreakdownBetter Black and White in DaVinci ResolveBlockbuster Looks in DaVinci Resolve: TransformersGot any color grading secrets that you’d like to share? Let us know in the comments below! Photoshop’s Vibrance function at work, set at 68.last_img read more

Help Your Client Move Faster

first_img Essential Reading! Get my 3rd book: Eat Their Lunch “The first ever playbook for B2B salespeople on how to win clients and customers who are already being serviced by your competition.” Buy Now I am sitting in the audience waiting to speak at a sales kickoff meeting. Right now, a couple of their clients are on the stage, and they have been asked what makes someone a good strategic partner. Almost everything they say is something that would require a confident salesperson who is willing to “go there.”First, they talk about how to handle a failure. They want the salespeople from the company to tell them what happened, to be transparent, and tell them what they need to do on their end while the failure is being resolved. They also say that they expect challenges and they want to have conversations about how to prepare for the unimaginable event, the Black Swan. They don’t understand why no one is willing to have that conversation with them. Salespeople mistakenly believe that talking about negative issues will cause them to lose credibility and so they avoid these conversations.Second, they say that there is no way a salesperson is going to move their proposed initiative into the one or two spot as it pertains to their priorities. Both of the speakers agree that the systemic challenges they are dealing with have much larger price tags and success there would outweigh even a multimillion-dollar ROI. They both suggest that you could make it the number three on the priority board if it is something truly valuable and that that might get it funded. This is another conversation that can help you grow trust and credibility.Perhaps the most interesting thing either of the speakers disclosed is the fact that they make decisions very slowly, much slower than they want to—and slower than they need to. The company’s client said “We move very slowly until we decide, and then we need you to move fast. If you can help us move faster by providing us with resources, you need to come and tell us what we can do.” There are probably ten conversations you could have with your clients right now to get them ready to move faster—if you frame it as wanting to help them go fast when they decide.If you want to know what clients think, ask them. If you ask them what they want, they’ll tell you—and the answer will provide you a key to creating value and establishing a relationship as a strategic partner.last_img read more

10 Things You Must Resist to be Successful

first_imgWhat you may not realize is that your biggest battle isn’t about what you should do, but rather, about what you should not do. Essential Reading! Get my first book: The Only Sale Guide You’ll Ever Need “The USA Today bestseller by the star sales speaker and author of The Sales Blog that reveals how all salespeople can attain huge sales success through strategies backed by extensive research and experience.” Buy Now Negativity: There is tremendous pressure to become negative. Most of the media that come in through your senses is negative. If you don’t protect yourself, you can become cynical, skeptical, and pessimistic. Resist negativity in all of its forms and maintain a positive attitude.Apathy: In an age of nihilism, many struggle with finding meaning and purpose, becoming apathetic and not believing that anything matters. The reason you are given a life is so you can decide for yourself what matters and make the difference you want to make.Complacency: A little bit of success can cause one to rest on their laurels, being too satisfied with where they are and missing the opportunity to reach their full potential. Pleased is fine, satisfied is not.Fear: Fear provides one of two things. It provides a reason to fly away or a reason to fight. Resisting the desire to turn away and step into your fear is courage, and it is all that is necessary to turn fear into fuel.Judgment: Resist jousting others harshly and look on them instead with compassion. Then offer yourself that same lack of judgment. Unless you have a time machine, there is nothing you can do about your past, so there is no reason to live there.Comfort: Humans are designed to seek pleasure and avoid pain – not only pain but discomfort. But the price of success and happiness is effort. It’s not that pleasure is all bad, just that too much of a good thing is a bad thing. The laws of success require that you do the hard work of planting seeds if you are to yield your harvest.Entertainment: Variety. Distraction. Novelty. You are hard-wired to seek these things, and in a world of infinite distractions, entertainment is always present and always available. There is nothing inherently wrong with entertainment and distraction, but you must resist allowing it to dominate your time and energy.Ingratitude: You have much for which to be grateful. But it is easy to take for granted the things for which you should be grateful. When you are truly grateful, you will appreciate the bad with the good, the cold with the warmth, and the struggle with the success. Resist ingratitude.Procrastination: Much of the work you put off should be done now. By putting it off, you reduce the time you have to produce the best result possible. You increase the stress. At some point, you need to do something with a tight deadline, and the fact that you have put off doing other work brings a sense of being overwhelmed. Fight the desire to push things into the future that should be done now.Excuses: You must resist absolving yourself of responsibility for that which you are responsible. By taking responsible you empower yourself, and you create trust in others. You own the outcomes you are responsible for generating.last_img read more

The Very Best Time to Prospect

first_imgWhen I first started selling, I had no existing clients and no other responsibility. I made cold calls out of the phone book, more specifically, the business section of the white pages. I dialed from 8:00 AM until Noon, went to lunch with people on my team, and returned to the office to make calls from 1:00 PM until 5:00 PM. I made calls all day, every day, minus the time I spent at meetings booked as a result of my prospecting effort.On Mondays, I would call the stack of index cards I used to keep track of the known prospects in my territory. I would flip through every card each Monday, jotting the date and result on the back of the index card. After getting through that stack, it was back to the phone book, or the list of prospects I built as I drove through the area where I had booked a meeting. It was my practice to walk into the two doors next to the prospect’s building, as well as the one across the street. I also walked into any building with many cars in the parking lot, as that was a sign they employed a lot of people.I loved Mondays, and I always asked for time on Thursday. I believed that Thursday was late enough into the week that someone receiving a request for a meeting later in the week would possess a greater willingness to meet, even if I had no evidence to prove my superstition.Some people believe Monday is a terrible day to prospect, as people are just getting back to work and are dealing with an overflowing inbox and a list of tasks that need their attention. Others believe Monday means business, preferring to book their meetings as early in the week as possible.Others believe that Tuesdays are better than any other day, and I have seen the research that suggests this is the most effective time to make calls. I have seen conflicting research that insists that Thursday is the best days to ask for a meeting, with the highest percentages of positive outcomes occurring early and late on that day.The truth about the best time to prospect is something like the Chinese saying that “If you want shade, the best time to plant a tree was 100 years ago. The second best time is now.”The best time to prospect was days, weeks, months, and years ago, the result not being easily obtained without consistent effort and outreach over time. The second best time to prospect is now. Essential Reading! Get my first book: The Only Sale Guide You’ll Ever Need “The USA Today bestseller by the star sales speaker and author of The Sales Blog that reveals how all salespeople can attain huge sales success through strategies backed by extensive research and experience.” Buy Nowlast_img read more

6 Allahabad High Court staff held for theft

first_imgThe Central Bureau of Investigation has registered a case against six persons, including two employees with the Allahabad High Court, for allegedly stealing and destroying court documents.In September last year, the Allahabad High Court had directed the CBI to conduct a preliminary enquiry into the missing High Court and lower court documents in a particular case. The agency submitted its report on January 18.According to the CBI, the files were stolen in connivance with two peons posted with the High Court — Dilip Kumar Chandel and Narendra Kumar. The others named in the FIR are Subhash Chandra, Chandra Veer Singh, Basudev and Rajvir. On further directions of the High Court, the CBI has now registered a case against the accused persons, booking them under various provisions of the Indian Penal Code and the Prevention of Corruption Act.Untraced filesThe theft came to light when a Division Bench of the High Court was hearing a criminal appeal. The case files were sent to the Court on July 25 last year. The lower court record was returned to the office the same day. The High Court file was returned two days later and the same was received in the criminal appeal section. However, both the files could not be traced later.The High Court, during the next hearing on August 31 last year, observed that there would be no option, but to cancel the bail of the accused persons Basudev and Rajbir, and issue a direction for enquiry. In September, the Court directed the Registrar General to look into the matter and submit a report.last_img read more

Sidhu’s TV show puts govt. in a spot

first_imgPunjab Chief Minister Amarinder Singh has decided to seek legal opinion on whether his Minister Navjot Singh Sidhu can continue to appear as a celebrity judge on a popular television show. “Capt. Amarinder has said he is not sure what the law says regarding a Cabinet minister working on a television programme, and will have to ask the State’s advocate general to give legal advice on the matter,” his media advisor, Raveen Thukral, told The Hindu.Conflict of interest“It’s about whether there’s any conflict of interest if he [Mr. Sidhu] continues to work in television…If there is any, then the Chief Minister will talk to him [Mr. Sidhu] and bring it to his knowledge,” he added.The controversy erupted after Mr. Sidhu recently said that he will continue to appear on a popular TV show as a celebrity judge. “TV shows will not interfere with my Cabinet responsibilities. The public had elected me five times with what I have been doing…If they don’t have a problem, why should anyone else have it,” Mr. Sidhu had said. ‘Not office of profit’He insisted that his TV shows will not interfere with his Cabinet responsibilities. “I have no liquor, sand mining or transport business like former deputy Chief Minister Sukhbir Singh Badal. I earn a living through TV shows and I will be in Chandigarh from Monday to Thursday and in Amritsar from Friday to Sunday. What I do at night should not be anyone’s concern. I will take first flight back to Punjab after TV shoots in Mumbai,” he said.Mr. Sidhu, who currently holds the portfolios of local government, tourism and cultural affairs, has been maintaining that doing a TV show does not come under the ambit of “office of profit”.Meanwhile, Navjot Singh Sidhu’s wife Navjot Kaur has come out in support of his husband through a Facebook post, saying that the issue was being over-hyped without any reason.“Such hype has been created about Navjot earning a living from television. He has left 80 per cent of shows, which included IPL, commentary, etc.I think it is a meagre time for a non-socially active God-fearing workaholic,” she wrote on Facebook. (With inputs from PTI)last_img read more

Gorkha movement gathers steam

first_imgThe fresh movement for a separate State of Gorkhaland in the Darjeeling hills gathered steam on Tuesday with smaller parties backing the Gorkha Janmukti Morcha (GJM) demand.At a meeting called by the GJM at the Darjeeling Gymkhana Club, representatives of the Gorkha Rashtriya Nirman Manch, Bharatiya Gorkha Parisangh, the Gorkha National Liberation Front (GNLF), the Communist Party of Revolutionary Marxists(CPRM) and the BJP were present. It was decided to collectively carry forward the struggle for Gorkhaland.In an embarrassment for the Trinamool Congress, the GNLF, with whom it had forged an alliance in the recent municipal polls, came out in full support of Gorkhaland.“The GNLF wholeheartedly supports the demand for Gorkhaland,” GNLF spokesperson Neeraj Zimba Tamang said, adding the alliance with the Trinamool Congress was only an “electoral understanding.” Mr. Tamang said the demand for Gorkhaland was raised by GNLF founder Subhash Ghising and the party would stand by whoever raises the issue.GJM general secretary Roshan Giri demanded a written clarification from the West Bengal government on the three language policy, which intends to make Bengali compulsory. He said the movement would be peaceful.last_img read more

Situation is worse than Emergency, says Mayawati

first_imgBahujan Samaj Party leader Mayawati on Monday hit out at Prime Minsiter Narendra Modi, saying his government had led the country into an era that was “worse than the Emergency.” Addressing party workers of western Uttar Pradesh at a convention here, the BSP chief also reached out to OBCs, who had withdrawn their support in the last few elections. “Babasaheb wanted reservation for the OBCs. People belonging to OBCs are not getting reservation commensurate with their population. The issue of reservation in the private sector is still pending and so is reservation in promotions. The BJP is against the very idea of reservation,” said the four-time Chief Minister who is trying to revive the fortunes of her party after it won only 19 seats in the 2017 Assembly polls, down from 80 in 2012, its worst performance since 1991 when it had won 12 seats.Amid slogans hailing BSP founder Kanshiram, Babasaheb Ambedkar and herself by thousands of party cadres, many of whom had painted themselves in blue, the colour of the party, she said, “The situation in the country is worse than during the Emergency. In order to intimidate leaders of the Opposition and muzzle their voice, all the arms and agencies of the central government like Enforcement Directorate (ED), the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), and Income Tax (IT) have been let loose on them.” She repeatedly accused Prime Minister Modi of acting against the welfare and interests of Dalits, the downtrodden and weaker sections of society. “I resigned from the Rajya Sabha because I was not allowed to speak for my people. What is the point of being a member of Parliament when I cannot talk about atrocities on Dalits in the Parliament of the country,” she said. Dalit intellectuals like Dr. Satish Prakash, who came to listen to the BSP leader told The Hindu that “the extent of the crowd which turned up to listen to her proves that she is still a mass leader and she cannot be dismissed.” “But the real question is not attracting crowds at rallies but winning elections. And to win elections with an aggressive BJP and Modi at the helm, the BSP supremo needs to do a complete makeover in how she connects with her cadres and the language of her politics. She needs to go back to the way BSP started. She needs to hit the ground,” said Dr. Prakash.Ms. Mayawati said that she would hereafter interact more with workers at such conventions on the 18th of every month. The party has planned eight such conventions across the State.last_img read more

3 injured after unidentified object explodes at orchard in J&K’s Shopian district

first_imgThree people were injured on January 28 after an unidentified object exploded at an orchard in Jammu and Kashmir’s Shopian district, police said. “While digging the fields at Chermarg in Zanipora area of Shopian, some suspicious object exploded, injuring the three people,” a police spokesman said.The injured were identified as Ghulam Nabi (55), Zubair Ahmad (18) and Umar Farooq (19), he said.The injured were taken to the district hospital in Anantnag for treatment. Their condition was stated to be stable, the spokesman said.The police have taken cognisance of the matter and the nature of the explosion is being investigated, he said.last_img read more

Sheikh Hasina to have luncheon meeting with Modi

first_imgBangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina will have a luncheon meeting with Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Friday following the inauguration of Bangladesh Bhavana at the Visva-Bharati University in Santiniketan. Her younger sister Sheikh Rehana will also be with her, sources on both sides confirmed to The Hindu. Before the programme around mid-day, the two Prime Ministers will attend the annual convocation of the Visva-Bharati University. Clearing the confusion on whether Ms. Hasina can have lunch during Ramzan, as she is fasting, an Indian government official said that the Bangladesh Prime Minister “does not observe fast while travelling.”Convocation On Friday, the Prime Ministers will also visit Rabindra Bhavana, the museum that houses Rabindranath’s original manuscripts, paintings, letters and sketches. PM Modi, the Chancellor of the University founded by Rabindranath Tagore in 1921, will attend the convocation for the first time after being appointed Chancellor in 2015.On Saturday, Prime Minister Hasina is “likely” to meet Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee in Kolkata after her visit to Kazi Nazrul University (KNU) in Paschim Bardhaman in a Special Convocation programme presided over by Governor Keshari Nath Tripathi, Chancellor of KNU. She will be conferred with Degree of Doctor of Literature (Honoris Causa) by the University. Bangladesh’s Minister of Cultural Affairs Asaduzzaman Noor said in Santiniketan that the sharing of water of the Teesta river will be discussed in the meetings.last_img read more

Loan waiver camps deferred

first_imgIn a surprise move, the BJP government in Rajasthan on Thursday deferred the holding of special camps for distribution of crop loan waiver certificates to farmers at the village cooperative societies in each of the 33 districts in the State. The camps were to be organised on May 26 and 28 to implement the decision for one-time loan waiver up to ₹50,000 each for farmers.The postponement of camps came amid the State government’s desperate attempts to find funds for the loan waiver scheme, which will cost ₹8,000 crore to the State exchequer. The Cooperative Department was asked at a meeting of a Group of Ministers on Wednesday to obtain a loan of ₹5,000 crore from banks to fund the loan waiver, for which the State government will provide guarantee.Chief Minister Vasundhara Raje had announced one-time loan waiver up to ₹50,000 each for small and marginal farmers from their outstanding short-term debts in the 2018-19 State budget presented in the Assembly on February 12 this year. The scheme was later extended to cover all farmers.Cooperative Minister Ajay Singh Kilak said here on Thursday that Ms. Raje would formally inaugurate the loan waiver scheme by distributing certificates at a State-level function in Banswara on May 31. Among the 2.93 million farmers in the State set to benefit from the loan waiver, 1,09,000 farmers, whose loans worth ₹250 crore has been waived, live in Banswara district.The Congress has flayed the decision to defer holding of camps and described it as the ruling BJP’s ‘insensitivity’ and an attempt to reap political benefit from its decision, which in any case would not benefit thousands of farmers who had obtained loans from the institutions other than the cooperative banks.‘Scrambling for funds’“The cash-strapped BJP government is scrambling to arrange funds for the farm loan waiver. The government’s complete failure has been proved by over 90 farmers committing suicide in its four-year rule,” Pradesh Congress vice-president Archana Sharma said here, while alleging that the State government was never serious on the loan waiver issue.last_img read more

Meat trade was never an issue in market, says brother of man assaulted for allegedly selling beef

first_imgSale of meat of any kind was never an issue in the bi-weekly market of Madhupur on the southern edge of Biswanath Chariali town, the brother of a man who was assaulted by a mob on Sunday for allegedly selling beef, said.Biswanath Chariali, headquarters of Biswanath district, is about 240 km north-east of Guwahati.“Our father started running a rice-meal eatery at the Madhupur market every Thursday and Sunday more than 40 years ago. I took over from him and later let my younger brother Shaukat Ali ran it,” Mohammed Sahabuddin, who filed a police complaint on the assault on Monday, told The Hindu.The district authorities, he said, assured him that action would be taken within 24 hours. On Monday night, the police arrested two people identified from the video of the assault that was uploaded on social media. On Sunday, the day of the assault, the police picked up five people, including two market committee leaders, in a bid to disperse a mob. They were let go after signing a good behaviour bond under section 107 of Code of Criminal Procedure.Mr. Sahabuddin, who lives in Kalakati village 15 km from Biswanath Chariali, admitted that the eatery has had beef on the menu for decades while letting customers bring home-cooked meat too. “No one told us we could not sell meat. They could have served a notice instead of attacking my brother, and could have taken action officially if we did not comply,” he said, adding that the mob mostly comprised people from adjoining areas.In his complaint, Mr. Sahabuddin said some members of the mob threatened to force-feed pork to his brother, who stays in the town behind the local police station.District Deputy Commissioner Pabitra Ram Khaund said the authorities swung into action soon after the complaint was lodged and arrested two people connected with the assault. “We took the victim to the hospital and provided treatment. He is now out of danger.” Mr. Khaund said the district administration had summoned leaders of local organisations, including the All Assam Minority Students’ Union, for a meeting toward normalising the situation. “We have made it clear peace must be maintained under any circumstances with the Lok Sabha election a few days away,” he stated.Joint vigilAdditional Director General of Police (Law and Order) Mukesh Agarwal said the police had organised a joint vigil by people of both communities to maintain peace. “High visibility and domination of security forces are in place.” Biswanath Chariali falls under the Tezpur Lok Sabha constituency, which goes to the polls with four other seats in Assam on April 11. Ten candidates are in the fray but the contest is expected to be between Minister Pallab Lochan Das of the BJP and retired IAS officer M.G.V.K. Bhanu of the Congress.The constituency is currently held by the BJP’s Ram Prasad Sarmah, who was denied ticket by the party.last_img read more

Dreaming big and chasing their dreams

first_imgDriven by a desire to change the “political discourse of the country”, over 50 alumni of IIT have got together and formed a new party, the Bahujan Azad Party, to contest the Lok Sabha poll. Formed in April last year, the party has been allotted “slate” as its election symbol.“Our party symbol signifies our motto: nurture the root first,” say a group of IITians in one voice as their white SUV moves precariously on a narrow levee full of potholes in Bihar’s Sheohar constituency. “It (levee) has been in construction for 20 years… you can see its condition, and they [parties in power in Bihar and at the Centre] keep talking about development,” says Anand Kumar Kushwaha.A bespectacled young man clad in white kurta and blue jeans, Mr. Kushwaha is an alumnus of IIT-Delhi. He passed out in 2006 and founded a start-up in Bangkok. But somewhere in his heart, he says, there was an ache to do something for the people of his State.Online coaching He later came in contact with NGO ‘Mauka Foundation’ run by fellow IITian Akhilesh Kumar. Over 50 IITians were associated with the foundation that gives online coaching to IIT aspirants living in remote villages.However, they all had dreams in their eyes and wanted to empower the downtrodden. Their IIT fellows in Delhi had seen and participated in the “Anna movement”. But they got disillusioned with fellow IITian Arvind Kejriwal’s (now Chief Minister of Delhi) “hurry to get power” and decided to take the plunge themselves.“So we formed BAP,” says party president Naveen Kumar alias Virodhi Naveen.Local contribution BAP has decided to contest five seats in Bihar (Sheohar, West Champaran, Karakat, Patna Sahib and Patliputra), 22 in Maharashtra, one in U.P. (Allahabad), one in Punjab (Bathinda) and two in Delhi. “We’ve our own way of interacting with the locals… we move on bicycles fitted with loudspeakers and reach out to people through meetings. The response is very encouraging,” says Mr. Akhilesh, who is also the party’s Bihar unit president. “While campaigning we seek a contribution of ₹1 from the locals to meet our expenses.” Mr. Kushwaha is pitted against two-time sitting BJP MP Rama Devi and Syed Faisal Ali, a journalist, fielded by the RJD in Sheohar that goes to the polls on May 12.last_img read more

E.U. Parliament Committee Adopts Watered-Down Restrictions on Deep-Sea Fishing

first_imgBRUSSELS—After months of delays, the European Parliament’s Fisheries Committee approved a report yesterday to restrict fishing practices deemed destructive for deep-sea ecosystems. But the committee did not back the proposal to ban bottom trawling and gillnetting altogether, an idea put forward by the European Commission in July last year.Bottom trawling and gillnetting are nonselective methods that catch 20% to 40% of unwanted fish, including vulnerable deep-sea species with long lifespans and slow reproduction rates. About 300 marine scientists have signed a petition in favor of the ban, released in June by a French marine conservation nongovernmental organization called Bloom.The Fisheries Committee agreed to close off northeast Atlantic areas known (or likely) to harbor vulnerable marine ecosystems, such as sponges and corals, to bottom trawling. “These areas are the spawning and nursing grounds of deep-sea species and their protection will be invaluable in achieving the recovery of deep-sea stocks,” said Kriton Arsenis, the social-democrat Member of Parliament from Greece who authored the committee’s report,  in a statement yesterday.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Besides, the committee introduced more stringent rules for data collection and a more robust scientific basis to set sustainable catch limits. It also left the door ajar for a general phaseout later—but only after an assessment of the impact of deep-sea fishing gear on fragile species and marine ecosystems after 4 years.In a statement, Greenpeace said that the proposed measures are too weak and their effects uncertain, and that bottom trawling and gillnetting should be banned completely. These methods “contribute only around one per cent of the EU’s total catch, yet suck up millions of euros in subsidies, destroy large areas of fragile sea-floor and overfish many deep-sea species,” Greenpeace fisheries expert Saskia Richartz said in the statement.Other environmental groups are a bit more optimistic. The committee vote hands over the baton to the whole Parliament, which is slated to vote on the issue next month. Bloom and Oceana, a conservation organization in Madrid, hope the plenary—which usually takes a more radical stance than the Fisheries Committee on these issues—will reconsider a full ban.But there are more steps ahead before any restrictions can be rolled out. The Parliament must also negotiate the legislation with member states, and fisheries ministers haven’t even started discussing the issue. Sources close to the negotiations say that France and Spain—where most European deep-sea trawling fisheries are based—have blocked the file.last_img read more

A Better Berry, Thanks to Bees

first_imgThe next time you bite into a bright red, perfectly shaped strawberry, give a shout-out to the bees. A new study shows that pollination by the insects increases the quality and shelf life of strawberries, saving hundreds of millions of dollars in the process. Bees could be providing the same benefits for a variety of other fruits and vegetables as well.It’s well known that pollination increases the yield of most crops. Seeds, nuts, fruit, and grain can be larger and more plentiful when insects or other animals transfer pollen between plants, in contrast to when plants pollinate themselves, a process called selfing. But quality turns out to be important, too. Teja Tscharntke, an agroecologist at the University of Göttingen in Germany, got the idea to study quality about a decade ago, while he was investigating pollination of coffee plants in Indonesia. He and his student Alexandra Klein noticed that not only was coffee yield higher with more bee species, but malformations such as unevenly shaped beans were also reduced.To delve into the role of pollination in fruit quality, Tscharntke decided to study strawberries. They can be pollinated by insects or by the wind, but they can also self. Each berry is an unusual collection of many tiny fruits, so pollen must be delivered to each of the 200 or so ovaries inside the flower. This means that pollination by insects could be even more important than in other plants. There were also hints from studies of plant metabolism that the amount of pollination could affect the pace of decay and susceptibility to bruising.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)In 2008, Tscharntke selected nine major strawberry varieties and planted them in an experimental field with plenty of wild bees and domesticated honey bees living nearby. (Bee diversity matters: a study in 1993 showed that wild bees specialize in pollinating the base of the flower, while honey bees prefer the top. This specialization helps ensure that an equal distribution of ovaries are pollinated.) With Ph.D. student Björn Klatt, Tscharntke and other colleagues prevented bees from reaching some of the flowers by covering them with bags that still allowed wind to blow pollen in. Other flowers were covered by bags that trapped all pollen produced by the flowers, ensuring that only selfing would occur. Strawberries yield fruit more than once per season, so the team had to quickly harvest several times and take the berries to the lab for analysis with colorimeters and other instruments. “For a few months we were really overwhelmed by all these strawberries,” Tscharntke says.Strawberries pollinated by bees were redder and brighter than the other berries, the team reports online today in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B. They also had fewer deformities. And because they were firmer, their shelf life is likely about 12 hours longer than those that were wind-pollinated. This may not sound like much, but after just 4 days of storage, more than 90% of strawberries can’t be sold. If pollinators weren’t involved, growers would lose 11% of the fruits’ value, a reduction of $320 million in the European Union in 2009. The same rate of spoilage in the U.S. crop in 2011 would have cost farmers $264 million. Because the researchers graded the fruits according to a commercial scale, they could calculate the market value of the various strawberries. Pollination by bees led to 39% higher sales value than wind pollination and 54% higher than selfing. These values imply that just by improving fruit quality, bees are responsible for half of the value of the strawberry crop, which was worth $2.9 billion in the European Union in 2009 and $2.4 billion in the United States in 2011. However, Tscharntke says it was difficult to taste a difference due to pollination as opposed to the type of strawberry plant.Pollination likely improves fruit because it stimulates two major plant hormones, Tscharntke says. Auxin promotes cell division and growth, increasing weight and firmness of the fruit. Gibberellic acid delays softening, helping the fruit resist bruises and mold. It’s not known how pollination affects fruit color, but the change makes sense for the plant’s goal of attracting animals to disperse the seeds.Previous studies have shown that pollination by bees yields firmer melons and cucumbers and higher sugar content in a few fruits. But this analysis is more comprehensive and the first to assess the broad economic impact. “It’s a nicely demonstrated case,” says ecologist Nico Blüthgen of the Technische Universität Darmstadt in Germany.Studying the impact of bees on fruit quality is an innovative way to better understand the contributions they provide to humans, says Claire Kremen, an ecologist at the University of California, Berkeley. “This is the next wave of getting at the value of pollinators.”last_img read more